Body Fluids And Circulation NEET Study Materials

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Body Fluids And Circulation Notes For NEET


Vertebrates circulate blood, a fluid connective tissue, in their body, to transport essential substances to the cells and to carry waste substances from there. Another fluid, lymph (tissue fluid) is also used for the transport of certain substances. Blood comprises of a fluid matrix, plasma and formed elements. Red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes), white blood cells (WBCs, leucocytes) and platelets (thrombocytes) constitute the formed elements. Blood of humans are grouped into A, B, AB and O systems based on the presence or absence of two surface antigens,
A, B on the RBCs. Another blood grouping is also done based on the presence or absence of another antigen called Rhesus factor (Rh) on the surface of RBCs. The spaces between cells in the tissues contain a fluid derived from blood called tissue fluid. This fluid called lymph is almost similar to blood except for the protein content and the formed elements. All vertebrates and a few invertebrates have a closed circulatory system. Our circulatory system consists of a muscular pumping organ, heart, a network of
vessels and a fluid, blood. Heart has two atria and two ventricles. Cardiac musculature is auto-excitable. Sino-atrial node (SAN) generates the maximum number of action protentials per minute (70-75/min) and therefore, it sets the pace of the activities of the heart. Hence it is called the Pacemaker. The action potential causes the atria and then the ventricles to undergo contraction (systole)
followed by their relaxation (diastole). The systole forces the blood to move from the atria to the ventricles and to the pulmonary artery and the aorta. The cardiac cycle is formed by sequential events in the heart which is cyclically repeated and is called the cardiac cycle. A healthy person shows 72 such cycles per minute. About 70 mL of blood is pumped out by each ventricle during a cardiac cycle and it is called the stroke or beat volume. Volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Coronary Artery Disease, often referred to as atherosclerosis, affects the vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. It is caused by deposits of calcium, fat, cholesterol and fibrous tissues, which makes the lumen of arteries narrower.Angina: It is also called ‘angina pectoris’. A symptom of acute chest pain appears when no enough oxygen is reaching the heart muscle. Angina can occur in men and women of any age but it is more common among
the middle-aged and elderly. It occurs due to conditions that affect the blood flow. Heart Failure: Heart failure means the state of heart when it is not pumping blood effectively enough to meet the needs of the body. It is sometimes called congestive heart failure because congestion of the lungs is one of the main symptoms of this disease. Heart failure is not the same as cardiac arrest (when the heart stops beating) or a heart attack (when the heartmuscle is suddenly damaged by an inadequate blood supply).



18.1  Blood

18.2  Blood Groups

18.3  Coagulation Of Blood 

18.4  Lymph

18.5  Human Circulatory

18.6  Cardiac Cycle

18.7  Double Circulation

18.8  Electrocardiography(ECG)

18.9  Disorder Of Circulatory System